Entries by Todd Hargrove

The Science Of Placebo

  What does the word placebo mean? Does the placebo effect involve actual health benefits or just imagined benefits? Is placebo “mind over body” or “all in your head”? Is it unethical to provide a client with placebo treatments? And what about nocebos? In this article, I’ll answer these questions and discuss some fascinating research […]

Many Orthopedic Surgeries Don’t Work Better Than Placebo

Unlike drugs, orthopedic surgeries can be sold to the public before they undergo rigorous testing to ensure they are safe and effective. Thus, millions of surgeries for knee, shoulder, and back pain have been done without studies to confirm they actually work. Recently, research has found that many popular surgeries (but not all) work no […]

Models Of Pain And Movement

  There are various models used to understand pain: the neuromatrix model, the biopsychosocial model; Louis Gifford’s Mature Organism Model; the Onion skin model, the biomedical model. And for motor learning and physical training, there is the constraints based model, or dynamic system theory, the various Russian sports science models, non-linear pedagogy, etc.   \ […]

Predictive Coding: Why Expectation Matters For Movement And Pain

  Predictive coding is a hip new model for perception that I have been studying lately. In some ways, it is very common sense and intuitive, and in others, it is very challenging and mind-expanding. Here’s a post describing what I’ve learned that I find interesting and practical. Before getting into that, let’s review why any […]